5 Different Types of Metal Cutting Techniques and Machines

Metal Cutting Techniques

Manufacturing processes have always included cutting operations, but many people are unaware there are many ways to cut metal. Each approach has a particular set of capabilities, constraints, and costs. Some Methods date back to the middle of the 1800s, while others are more recent. The five procedures that enable the manufacturing sector to cut through metals will be dissected in this essay.

Different Types of Metal Cutting Techniques 


When trying to find a means to cut leather for the shoe industry, shearing, also known as die cutting, was invented in the middle of the 1800s. The technique is being applied to a wide range of materials and allows the metal to be cut without chipping or the need for heat. In this method, a moving blade pushes on a stationary work piece.

Heat Technique

Plasma cutting and laser cutting are two examples of heat-based metal cutting operations. These procedures remove extra material by cutting it away with a hot, powerful light. A couple of the most well-known techniques for cutting metal date back to the 1960s: laser cutting and 1957 plasma cutting. Although both of these operations are commonly used cutting techniques, they produce thermal damage, substantial distortion, and the need for various finishing procedures.

  • Laser cutting technique – This method vaporizes and removes extra materials by carving them away with a laser.
  • Plasma cutting technique – An action similar to laser cutting, but one in which the electrically conductive materials are cut with the help of an intensified stream of heated plasma.

Electrochemical Technique

Processes like electrical discharge machining (EDM), etching, and electrochemical machining are examples of electrochemical cutting techniques (ECM). These activities cut off a chemical and electrical reaction.

  • EDM – A method of manufacturing where an electrical charge produces the cuts (spark). Due to this, EDM is often known as wire burning, spark machining, and spark eroding.

Abrasive Cutting Technique

Water jet cutting, lapping, and other abrasive cutting processes are examples. All of these cutting techniques use erosion to get rid of extra material. These procedures offer superior edge quality, are significantly faster than thermal methods like laser and EDM, and frequently result in cost reductions for producers.

  • Grinding – The primary cutting process in the grinding process is a grinding wheel. There are even more specialized and unique activities within grinding, including stress-strain grinding, cyclic grinding, and surface grinding.

Chip Forming

Chip forming is a mechanical method of cutting metal that includes sawing, milling, drilling, and turning. Kivima and Franz invented this technique in the 1950s. This three-way model, well-known in the machine tool design field, is frequently used to describe this metal cutting process. These techniques include gradually removing the material in tiny “chips” from the workpiece.


Today’s producers have a wide range of alternatives for cutting metals because of the wide variety of techniques and activities available. No one solution fits everybody, even though each offers benefits and drawbacks. After conducting a thorough analysis of the project, industry experts frequently choose the operation to carry out.

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