Sikhi or Sikhism is a religion that originated in the 15th century, in the Punjab region. Sikhism is the most recently founded religion. Sikhism believes in one god, Sikh means “leaning or leaner”. Guru Granth Sahib is Sikh’s holy scripture. Sikhism advocates service to humanity, faith, and the meditation of God who created this universe, equality, social justice, and tolerance for other religions.
10 Sikh Gurus Names in Order List and History with Birth and Death date
There is ten human guru sahib ji in Sikhism who have written their holy scripture, teach religious lessons, meditated living like normal people, and martyred for Sikhism. So following are the ten Sikh gurus’ names with birth and death date.
1. Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji
15 April 1469 to 22 September 1539
Guru Nanak Dev Ji is the first Guru of Sikhs and the founder of Sikhism. Guru Nanak Dev Ji was born on 15 April 1469, in the village of Talwandi, Punjab. Now it is known as Nankana Sahib, Pakistan. Guru ji’s father’s name was Mehta Kalu ji and his mother’s name was Mata Tripta ji. They got married to Mata Sulakhni in the year 1487. Sri Chand & Lakhmi Das were their two sons. Bebe Nanki ji was an elder sister.
Nanak Dev ji takes birth on the earth to bring out all the world from the dark to the shiny side. He had an extraordinary soul and thought from childhood. Guru ji was against many prevalent societal activities such as the caste system, demi-God worship, superstition, and idolatry. Nanak ji started Langar Sewa when they give food to hungry people. Guru Nanak Dev ji Gurbani is registered in 974 Shabads in 19 Ragas, Gurbani Includes Japji, Sohilaa, Sidh Gohst, Dakhni Onkar, Patti, Asa di Var, and Bara Mah. Guru ji birth is celebrated worldwide on Katak Pooranmashi, as Guru Nanak Gurpurab in October or November. Nanak Dev Ji died (joti jot) aged 70 on September 22, 1539, at Kartarpur, Pakistan.
2. Shri Angad Dev Ji
31 March 1504 to 29 March 1552
Guru Angad Dev ji also called Bhai Lehna (birth name) is the second Guru of Sikhs. Guru Angad Dev ji was born on 31 March 1504, in Sri Muktsar Sahib, Punjab. Guru ji’s father’s name was Pheru Mal ji and his mother’s name was Mata Ramo ji. Guru Angad ji married Khivi in the year 1520. Guru ji had two daughters Bibi Amro and Bibi Anokhi and two sons bhai Dasu and Bhai Datu. Guru Angad Dev ji set up Gurmukhi schools to teach youths the Punjabi language.
Lehna ji (childhood name) birth into a Hindu family, but one day they heard about Guru Nanka Dev ji from Bhai Jodha and decided to meet Nanak dev ji in Kartarpur sahib. After meeting and listening to Guru Nanak Dev ji hymns, they decided to become true and permanent devotes and Sikhs. Lehna ji is tested several times by Guru Nanak dev ji during selfless service and passed every time. Finally, They become Guru Angad Dev ji from Bhai Lehna and installed him as his successor, the 2nd Nanak, on 13 June 1539. Guru Angad Dev ji contributed 63 Shabads and Saloks which are registered in the Guru Granth Sahib. They also did selfless service, Gurmukhi script, established several Sikh gurudwaras, and casteless societies, and maintained Langar Sewa. Guru Angad Dev ji died aged 47 on 29 March 1552, Amritsar.
3. Guru Amar Das Ji
5 May 1479 to 1 September 1574
Guru Amardas ji became the third Sikh Guru on 26 March 1552 at the age of 73. Guru Amardas ji was born on 5 May 1469 in Amritsar, Punjab after 10 years of the birth of Guru Nanak. Guru ji’s father’s name was Tej Bhan Bhalla and his mother’s name was Bakht Kaur. Guru Angad ji got married to Mata Mansa Devi. Guru had four children – Bibi Dani, Bhai Mohan, Bibi Bhani, and Bhai Mohri. Guru Amardas was a shopkeeper in Basarke village. Guru Angad Dev ji meets to death at the age of 95, 1st September 1574, Goindwal Sahib.
Guru Amar Das Sahib ji added 907 hymns in 17 ragas in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. The popular gift of prayer of Guru Amardas ji is Anada sahib. Guru ji also started First Pangat, then Sangat abolished the caste system, gave equality to women, and established the Sikh management system and city of Goindval. They are also known for Sikh congregations at Diwali, Sikh Manji system Langar, Vaisakhi; Stop Sati Pratha, and Parda system.
4. Guru Ramdas ji
24 September 1534 to 1 September 1581
Guru Ramdas ji is the fourth of the 10 Gurus of Sikhism. Guru Ramdas ji was born on 24 September 1534, in Lahore, Pakistan and his birth name was Jetha ji. Guru ji’s father’s name was Hari Das and his mother’s name was Anup Devi. Guru Ram Das got married to Mata Bhani who was the daughter of Guru Amardas ji. Guru had three children Guru Arjan, Prithi Chand, and Baba Mahan Dev.
Guru Ramdas lost his mother at 2 and his father when he was 7 years old. Thereafter grew up and come with his maternal grandmother to a village. Guru ji spent five years in the town of Basarke and sold boiled grams to earn his bread. His grandmother and Guru Ramdas ji moved to Goindval, where they met Shri Guru Amar Das. Guru Ramdas ji accepted Guru Amar Das as his Guru and served him. Guru Amar Das ji instead of selecting his own sons, chose Bhai Jetha, due to his selfless service, devotion, and unquestioning admitting to the commands of the Guru Amar Das ji. Guru Ram Das ji became the Guru of Sikhism in 1574, at the age of 40 years.
688 Hymns of Guru Ram Das added in Shri Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Ram Das designed and kept the foundation of the golden temple. Ramdaspur (Amritsar) is also a planned and created Guru Ji. Guru Ramdas ji died at the age of 46, 1 September 1581, Goindwal Sahib.
5. Guru Arjan Dev Ji
15 April 1563 to 30 May 1606
Guru Arjan Dev Ji is the first of the two Gurus who were martyred in Sikhism. Guru Arjan Dev was the firth Guru of Sikhism. Guru Arjan Dev ji was born on 15 April 1563, Goindwal Sahib. Guru Arjan ji father’s name was Guru Ram Das and his mother’s name was Mata Bhani. Guru Ram Das got married to Mata Ganga. Guru had one son Guru Hargobind.
After the death of Akbar, the Jahangir become the next ruler who wants that all people to follow Shariyat Muslim law. He also wants that Guru Arjan Dev ji also comes into their society. The main cause of Guru Arjan Dev ji was martyrdom, they refused to marry Chandu’s daughter, shelter to prince Khasrau, religious intolerance of Jahangir, and rising of Sikhism. Guru Arjan was arrested and asked to convert the religion to Islam by Jahangir. But Guru Arjan Dev ji refused and as the result, Mughal emperor Jahāngīr ordered to be made to sit Guru ji on a burning plate, and hot sand was also poured on him which was unimaginable and extremely painful. Guru Arjan become the first martyr in Sikhism on June 16, 1606, after being tortured for five days by the Mughals.
Guru Ramdas ji collated and compiled the hymns of the previous Sikh Gurus, and also composted his 2218 hymns to the Si Guru Granth Sahib ji. They are authored by the Sukhmani Sahib Bani, the foundation of the Guru Granth Sahib, who built the Golden Temple, and introduced the Masand system.
6. Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji
19 June 1595 to 19 March 1644
Guru Hargobind Ji is the sixth Guru of Sikhs who become Sikh Guru at the young age of 11. Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji was born on 19 June 1595, at Wadali in Amritsar. Guru Arjan ji’s father’s name was Guru Arjan and his mother’s name was Mata Ganga. Guru Hargobind got married to Mata Nanaki. Guru had five sons Baba Gurditta, Baba Ani Rai, Baba Suraj Mal, Baba Atal Rai & Guru Tegh Bahadur. Guru Hargobind Singh ji tall was very tall, heavy, and strong.
Guru Ji received his training in martial arts and spirituality from Baba Buddha Ji. The Guru Hargobind developed a strong and brave Sikh army for the purpose of protecting the poor and destroying dictators. Guru Ji also built the Akal Takht Sahib in 1608, which is in the present-day Darbar sahib. Guru Hargobind Sahib ji wore the two swords of Miri (temporal power) and Piri (spiritual power) by baba Buddha ji after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev ji. He founded Kiratpur city in the Rupnagar District. Guru Hargobind sahib ji is the 1st Guru who fought and won defensive battles against Mughal forces.
A story about Guru Hargobind when the Guru was arrested and imprisoned at Gwalior by the Mughal dictator. He is called “Bandi Chore” because he freed 52 kinds from the Mughal Gwalior Jail and Sikhs also celebrate this day as Diwali. Guru Hargobind ji died at the age of 48, 19 March 1644, Kiratpur sahib.
7. Shri Guru Har Rai Ji
16 January 1630 to 6 October 1661
Guru Har Rai Ji is the 7th Guru of the Sikhs and become the Guru at the young age of 14 on 19 March 1644. Guru Har Rai Ji was born on 31 January 1630. Guru Har Rai Ji’s father’s name was Baba Gurdita and his mother’s name was Mata Nihal Kaur. Guru Har Rai Ji got married to Mata Krishen Kaur. Guru had two sons Baba Ram Rai and Guru Har Krishan. He was the grandson of Guru Hargobind ji.
He was an embodiment of contentment, calm, mild-natured, and engaged in the singing hymns of God and has Sant’s behavior from childhood. Guru ji keeps continuing the military traditions which were started by Guru Har Gobind Ji and always keeps a military contingent of 2200 high-ranking Singh warriors with him. He was also a Sultan and also a dervish. His heart was so tender that he would be saddened when a flower was broken. Knowing the time of Sach Khand’s return, On 20 October 1661, Joti Jot was extinguished. The body was cremated on the banks of the Sutlej and the remains were immersed in water at Patalpuri.
8. Shri Guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji
7 July 1656 to 30 March 1664
Guru Har Krishan is the 8th of ten Sikh Gurus. Guru Harkrishan Sahib Ji was born on 7 July 1656. Guru Harkrishan Ji’s father’s name was Guru Har Rai and his mother’s name was Krishen Devi. He was the son of Guru Har Rai ji. At the age of 5, Har Krishan ji became the youngest Guru of the Sikhs on 7 October 1661. Shri Guru Harkrisan ji is also known by the name ‘Bal Guru’ or ‘Bala Pritam’. Your brother Baba Ram Rai could not become Guru because of his cleverness, miracles, jealousy, and anti-Guru Ghar activities.
At the age of eight, Jyoti Jyot was absorbed. In a period of three years, Guru ji led the Sikh Panth with insight, determination, wisdom, and courage. Like the other Gurus, he also preached the Sikh religion and taught the Sikhs. During his life, Guru Har Krishan ji visited many places and inspire to connect with God and do Sewa. Gurdwara Patal Puri, Kiratpur, Bangla Sahib, Bala Sahib Ji, and Panjokhara Sahib are gurudwaras associated with Guru Har Kishan Ji. In those days fever and smallpox spread in Delhi. Guru ji helped the suffering patients day and night. The diseases of body and mind were removed with the holy sight of Guru ji.
While serving the patients in this way, one day Guru Har Krishan Ji also got a high fever. Symptoms of smallpox also started appearing on his body. Knowing his end time, Aap ji gave an order to the Sangat about Guruya that ‘Baba Bakale’ meant that the next Guru Teg Bahadur ji is in the village of Bakale. Guru Har Krishan ji died on 30 March 1664, at the age of eight in Goindwal Sahib.
9. Shri Guru Teg Bahadur Sahib Ji
1 April 1621 to 24 November 1675
Guru Teg BahadurJi is the 9th Guru of the Sikhs who was born on 1st April 1621, Amritsar. Guru ji was the youngest son of Guru Hargobind and Mata Nanaki. Mata Gujri ji was your spouse and Guru Gobind Singh ji your son. Guru ji also called ‘Hind Di Chadar’.
Guru ji has serious nature from his childhood. He liked solitude and used to sit alone somewhere and stay absorbed in the Lord’s meditation and chanting his name. At Bakala, Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji spent 26 years in meditation. His devotion and discipline to meditating and bravery made him a true Guru. While fighting with the Mughals, Aap ji supported his father Hargobind ji in the battle of Palahi. After his visit to Kiratpur, Patna, Assam, Bengal, Bilaspur, and Bihar, the Guru ji bought the land for 500 rupees where they established Anandpur Sahib. At that time Aurangzeb was ruling over all religions and people. Aurangzeb asked Guru Ji to convert to Islam. When he did not agree, he martyred himself at Delhi’s Chandni Chowk with three others, Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das, and Bhai Dyala ji, on November 24, 1675.
Guru ji was also a poet and learned spiritual scholar whose 115 hymns are added to Sri Guru Granth Sahib. His Gurbani included 116 shabads and 15 ragas. Guru ji covers a wide range of topics, such as human attachments, sorrow, the nature of God, body, mind, dignity, death, service, and deliverance.
10. Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji
22 December 1666 to 7 October 1708
Guru Gobind Singh Ji is born on 22 December 1666, in Patna. Guru ji was the son of Guru Teg Bahadur ji and Mata Gujri ji. Mata Sahib Kaur and Mata Jito were the wives of Guru Gobind Singh ji. Guru ji has four sons – Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Zorawar Singh, Jujhar Singh, and Fateh Singh. They were great a warrior, spiritual master, poet, and philosopher. Guru ji became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs at the age of nine, on November 24, 1675.
In his childhood, Gobind Rai used to make armies of children and fight fake battles against each other. He was the master of languages such as Sanskrit, Bridge, Arabic, Persian, and Punjabi. Guru ji sent his father for martyrdom against the atrocities of Aurangzeb, at the age of nine. Gobind Singh established Khalsa Panth on the day of Baisakhi at Anandpur, in 1699. Guru ji gave Amrit to Panj Pyare and also gave him a new surname “Singh. Guru Gobind Singh fought the battles of Bhangani, Nadaun, Guler, Anandpur, Nirmohgarh, Chamkaur, Muktsar, and more. Guru ji’s two sons were martyred during his lifetime in the battle of Chamkaur, and two were bricked alive by the Mughal governor Wazir Khan.
Guru Gobind Singh finalized and enshrined the Guru Granth Sahib and Dasam Granth. In the last days of his life, Guru Gobind Singh ji said to Sikhs ‘The Granth Sahib ji is the Guru from now and Sikhs would read hymns of Granth and regard the scripture instead of finding another human Guru. The Guru lost this world physically on 7 October 1708 due to his fatal wounds which were given to an assassin. Guru ji’s death fuelled a bitter and long war between the Sikhs and Mughals under the leadership of Banda Singh Bahadur.